Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, first founded in 1906, has carried out work in the field of surgery and anesthesia since the founding of the hospital. The Department of Anesthesiology was established in 1956 as a primary clinical department of the hospital. It was created by famous scientist Professor Xu Qiming who served as its first director, and its second director was Professor Tan Xiujuan. In 1985, the Department of Anesthesiology was granted authorization to award the Master’s degree of Anesthesiology. In 2003 the State Council granted the Department of Anesthesiology permission to award the doctoral degree of Anesthesiology, and postdoctoral degree of Anesthesiology in 2009. In 1988, Xiangya Hospital set up the first Anesthesiology Faculty in Subordinate Universities of Ministry of Education (SUME), and in 2001, it became one of key undergraduate disciplines in Hunan Province. In 2008, Anesthesiology was acknowledged as an important discipline of Central South University, and in 2010 obtained the first national key clinical specialist construction project. After more than 50 years of development, Department of Anesthesiology achieved rewarding results in the fields of clinical care, research, and teaching. In 2011, it was among the top ten in the best Chinese reputation hospitals specialists list, and among the best in the national Anesthesiology rank. It has become one the main faculties of clinical medicine, teaching and research centers in China.